Streptococcus pneumonia is a gram-positive bacteria that causes the majority of community-acquired pneumonia cases as well as 1-2 million baby deaths worldwide each year. The bacteria has over 100 serotypes and has been found to naturally proliferate in the nasopharynx without causing symptoms. However, germs can travel to sterile tissues and organs and cause pneumonia in susceptible persons such as neonates and the elderly. Diagnosis is accomplished through culture, antigen detection, or PCR. The most often used test is rapid antigen testing using urine specimens, which depends on the identification of the group C polysaccharide cell wall antigen shared by all pneumococcal strains.