|Product Name||SARS CoV-2 Spike S1 Antibody, Rabbit Monoclonal, 4G4|
|Immunogen||Spike S1 subunit Protein (2019-nCoV Spike S1 Subunit, Catalog # 19CoV-S110)|
|Preparation||Rabbits immunized with spike S1 protein were bled and sera were collected. Antibody is purified from pooled sera by antigen affinity chromatography|
|Applications||Western Blot, ELISA and other platforms|
|Reactivity||SARS CoV-2 Spike S1 protein|
|Purification||Antigen affinity chromatography.|
|Storage conditions||For long term storage, the antibody should be stored at -20℃ and is stable for 12 months from the date of receipt. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles. For short term storage, keep at 4oC for a week should be fine.|
|Application Dilution||1:1,000-1:100,000 (platform dependent, customers have to test the optimal concentration on their own platform)|
The spike proteins are the crown like protrusions which are densely glycosylated as it contains 21 to 35 N-glycosylation sites. It recognizes the corresponding receptors on the human cells and then undergoes a structural change that allows the viral membrane to fuse with the cell membrane. The viral RNA then enters the host cell, gets copied producing more viruses in the host. The spike protein has two domain organization: N-terminal domain called as the S1 subunit recognizes and binds to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) which is expressed in lung tissue and a C-terminal S2 domain responsible for fusion. The S2 subunit is the most conserved region of the protein, whereas the S1 subunit diverges in sequence even among species of a single coronavirus. The S1 contains two subdomains, a N-terminal domain (NTD) and a C-terminal domain (CTD). Both are able to function as receptor binding domains (RBDs) and bind a variety of proteins and sugars. The NTDs and CTDs of the S1 subunit can bind host receptors or function as receptor binding domains (RBD). The spike protein of Covid-19 is 10-20 times more likely to bind on ACE2 receptors on the human cells as compared to the SARS virus from 2002. This enables the virus to be spread from person to person more rapidly than the SARS virus from 2002. The antibodies for SARS virus could not successfully bind to Covid-19 spike protein, which makes it more unique than other coronaviruses making the spike protein a very good target for the development of vaccines and the diagnostic kits.
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